I. Speech:
Political
Artistic
Commercial
What is difference from commercial speech to political, artistic speech?
  • Political and artistic speech are both fully protected while commercial speech is not fully protected. Commercial speech must be truthful because it is the basis of the bargain.
II. Commercial speech:
Advertising
  • Characteristics include: Utilizes mass media, is non-personal, must be paid for,creative, capable of great "amplified expresiveness," the sponsor is identified
Sales promotion
  • There is a finite time frame and an associated sense of urgency with sales promotion
  • This is a good way to control inventory management
  • You do not want to do this too often or you will reduce the perception of cost of your brand. Customers will become accustomed to the lower price and will be unwilling to pay the original price. An example of this is Macy's who runs so many promotions that many customers will not buy a full price item from the store.
Personal selling
  • This allows for valuable face-to-face interaction
  • This is the most expensive type of commercial speech
  • Can substitute or augment research. However, must make sure there is good communication with the sales force. Knowledge the sales force possesses about customers is not useful unless it is shared.
  • Biggest problem is it needs to schedule a meeting
Public relations
  • Biggest problem is lack of control of the content
  • Engage in this speech because consumers are less skeptical about the press than they are about advertisers.
Publicity:or known as Earned Media and inthis area marketers most work. You can get mixed results from it and it is hard to manage .
Earned Media:
Direct methods
  • Contacting the customers directly through E-mails, Linkedin, facebook, phone, messaging and by using other methods.

III. When/ how why does IMC work?
A. Sales volume
B. Brand equity - enhance it, adding a brand personality or associating a particular brand/product/service with a reference group - this adds value
C. Lower costs - great work in advertising can reduce the amount of work that your sales department has to do (which reduces overall costs of sales)
  • It has to be relevant to the target market
  • Deliver freight (content someone else cares about. It has to be done in a way that it is easy for someone else to do - ex: websites , do you go back to websites that are hard to navigate? NO.)

Primary demand: When the company is the first in the market to provide this product , it will be a primary demand to customers.It is easy to gain profits from this product because there are no competitors.
Selective demand: When other competitors provide the same product , it will be a selective demand to customers. It is harder to make profit and each company must differenciate their product from the competitors products. Brand and differentiation matters .

IV. Cardinal rules
Don’t lie. Why don't we lie ?
- In order to protect the brand reputation and trust, companies should not lie.
- IT'S WRONG
- Lying could be grounds for retaliation
- Once trust is ruined, it's hard to be reestablished, customers may feel violated

"Is it ethical to prey on consumers' insecurities?" Yes, everyone has insecurities. These insecurities are problems that can be solved or assuaged by products or services being offered. Degrees of fantasy are not considered lying as they are presented as obvious cases or fantasy. However, one must draw the moral line in using this tactic ex: is it ethical to objectify women in beer commercials that target heterosexual men's fantasies?

Engage in IMC last. What have to come first?
Product/ Service, Distribution/ Service delivery and the Pricing should be right. IMC does not hold good if these three aspects are not right.

Ease of communication
The ease of communication deceases from Brand loyals to Non category users.
  1. Brand loyals - a brand that you love no matter what (ex: you'd rather not soda if your brand is not available)
  2. FBS- Favorable Brand Switcher - YOUR company's brand is dominant, but the customer switches if your product isn't available (ex: if don't have Coca-Cola at the store, then are willing to drink Pepsi)
  3. OBS- Other Brand Switcher - Usually loyal to one product, but will switch every once and a while. They'll use you, but "they don't really love you"
  4. Other loyals
  5. Non category users - people that don't use any type of product/service in the category (ex: don't drink soda at all, no matter what the brand)
*Don't usually go further down than the first three, the amount of money that you would have to invest trying to talk to them will be more than what it is worth


V. Which one will you choose ? Depth or breadth, YEF or Reach
  • Choose depth (also known as MEF) over breadth (or reach). MEF is the minimum number of times you must talk to someone in order for them to process your message. Typical number is 3 to 4 times. If you choose to concentrate on breadth you may get a larger number of people to see your speech, but nobody will remember it. It is better to talk to a few people well then a lot of people badly.